Volume 3 Issue 4

1: Electrochemical study of Bismuth heavy metals using the cyclic voltammetry method in anti-protozoal


Bismuth oxides are well-known electro-catalysts in fuel cells systems; they are usually used as anodic materials for the oxidation of low molecular weight alcohols. The utilization of BiO2 and MnO2 as catalysts in the pharmaceutical analysis is analytical method for the determination of heavy metal antibacterial agents in Pharmaceutical Dosage form is developed. The method is based on the voltammetric determination of heavy metal using Bidified platinum electrode by Bismuth oxide. The two components are oxidized at the Bidified electrode surface with the development of current that is linearly proportional to their concentrations in the range of 7.04*10-7- 1*10-3 M heavy metal. The oxidation reaction of the two components is pH-dependent, in which the buffer used is Britton-Robinson at pH = 7.00 where maximum peak current and maximum peak separation is obtained. The regression factors obtained from the calibration curves are 0.9812. The method of analysis was validated, where the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated to be 1.44*10-4 M, 4.36*10-4 M and 1.27*10-4 M, 3.84*10-4 M respectively, the percentage recovery of both components was also calculated to 77 % for heavy metal.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Differential pulse voltammograms, Cyclic Voltammetry, Bismuth, Nanoparticle

2: Reasons for delay in construction projects in the municipality of Aiy


The research aimed to study the causes and difficulties that beset the process of executing construction projects, by studying the provisions of the standard contracting contract FIDIC, which is used by the Ministry of Public Works and other public institutions in Jordan, whether the fourth edition of it or the 99th edition, noting that the unified contracting contract book for the year 1996 is It is only the FIDIC contract with its fourth edition and its amendments. Also, this study aims to clarify the causes and these difficulties and to indicate the solutions that can be proposed to avoid these difficulties. The study recommended the following:

1. The need to find more financing institutions for the contracting sector than the current ones, which are limited to banks, and to allow insurance companies to enter this field in order to reduce the cost of borrowing for contractors.

2. The specifications should be open and the engineer should not interfere with selection, but approval only if the specific conditions of the specification are met.

3.It is necessary for the engineer not to interfere in approving the program because the program is the responsibility of the contractor and he is more knowledgeable about the implementation process, and that it is only for viewing and follow-up.

Keywords: delay, construction projects, Aiy municipality