Volume 2 Issue 2

1: Variable Rounds Block Cipher Algorithm Design


Feistel algorithm is a design model from which many different block ciphers are derived. DES is just one example of a Feistel Cipher. A cryptographic system based on Feistel cipher structure uses the same algorithm for both encryption and decryption. In each round, the right half of the block, R, goes through unchanged. However, the left half, L, goes through an operation that depends on R and the encryption key. In the proposed algorithm the left half L and the right half R both are goes through an operation depends on the round encryption key and L, R thus both L and R goes through changed in each round, this leads to possibility use one round only to encrypt/decrypt block of input data. The second Kirchhoff’s principle stated that a cryptographic system should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge. Virtually all the contemporary encryption algorithms such as DES, AES, etc. are applied this principle. This principle leads means that message depends solely on the security of the secret encryption key. The proposed algorithm designed according to this principle. In modern era, cryptosystem needs to cater to users who are connected to the Internet. In such cases, using a secret algorithm is not feasible; hence, Kirchhoff’s principles became essential guidelines for designing algorithms in modern cryptography. The Feistel algorithm, such as DES, in real implementation instead of using the whole encryption key during each round, a round-dependent key a subkey is derived from the encryption key. This means that each round uses a different key, although all these subkeys are related to the original key. However, in the proposed algorithm each round subkey is independent and unrelated to another different subkey, this making the proposed system stronger, more secure and makes it more difficult to attack. The proposed algorithm design, both plaintext and cipher text block size equal to 192-bit distributed over six groups of 32 bits for each and round subkey size of 176 bit (22 byte) for each round, because the left and right half of input block goes changed through an operation by apply two encrypting functions one for left half and the second for right half that takes two input for each, the round key K as well as R and L, hence the variable number of rounds from 1 and above possible to use.

Keywords: Block cipher, round, encryption, decryption, F-Function, Plaintext block, Ciphertext Block, Key Block, Symmetric

2: Frequency Attack Immunity: Flat Distribution Substitution Encryption System


Substitution encryption techniques is still used today in modern encryption systems, and the main problem of this type of encryption system is its security weakness, which is caused by the inconsistent distribution of the alphabetical characters that make up the alphabet in the ciphertext, which is a direct reflection of the statistical distribution of the corresponding plaintext. In this paper, the standard symbols in the ASCII code have been used as a plaintext alphabet, and then each of these 256 symbols has been substituted with another symbol from the same table to produce a new alphabet for coding, and then we change the symbols that represent part of the file data from the file type to the corresponding form of the symbols in the new encoded alphabet. This process makes the distribution of symbols randomly in a file, and thus the cryptanalyst would not be able to take advantage of these random statistical properties or methods that depend on these statistical methods to break the new code generated by the proposed system.

Keywords: Substitution, WAVE, BMP, Cipher, Encryption, Plaintext, Ciphertext, encoding, analysis

3: Electrochemical Analysis of Heavy metal by Cyclic Voltammetry Method


Bismuth and Bismuth oxides are well-known electro-catalysts in fuel cells systems; they are usually used as anodic materials for the oxidation of low molecular weight alcohols. The utilization of BiO2 and MnO2 as catalysts in the pharmaceutical analysis is analytical method for the determination of heavy metal antibacterial agents in Pharmaceutical Dosage form is developed. The method is based on the voltammetric determination of heavy metal using Bidified platinum electrode by Bismuth oxide. The two components are oxidized at the Bidified electrode surface with the development of current that is linearly proportional to their concentrations in the range of 7.04*10-7- 1*10-3 M heavy metal. The oxidation reaction of the two components is pH-dependent, in which the buffer used is Britton-Robinson at pH = 7.00 where maximum peak current and maximum peak separation is obtained. The regression factors obtained from the calibration curves are 0.9812. The method of analysis was validated, where the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated to be 1.44*10-4 M, 4.36*10-4 M and 1.27*10-4 M, 3.84*10-4 M respectively, The percentage recovery of both components was also calculated to 77 % for heavy metal.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Differential pulse ‎ voltammograms, Cyclic Voltammetry, Bismuth, Nanoparticle, heavy metal.

4: The research, analysis and empirical design of hydrodynamics system for generating electrical energy from flowing water moving at 3mph


This research focuses on the basis to verify a concept; whether the water motion in a slow flowing river of speed above 2MPH (2 miles per hour) is able to be utilized and converted into sufficient electrical energy output or not. In this concept, the water motion turns a specially design and built turbine blades, which transmit rotational motion to the shaft, which is connected to a speed increaser (bevel gearbox – used to increase the speed). The other end is connected to a DC generator using a prime mover; this changes the kinetic energy of the shaft to electrical energy produced by the generator. The energy is either directly used or stored in a battery system for off-pick hour use. The system is able to provide an economical way to produce electrical energy to small communities without affecting the environment and reduce reliance on fossil fuel.

Keywords: Micro-hydroelectric, Energy, Generator, miles per hour (MPH)

5: E-learning: significance on federal unity schools students’ in Nigeria amidst covid-19 lockdown


E-Learning has become the only option left to ensure Academics activities are not totally put on hold due to the crisis of COVID-19 pandemics, which led the lockdown Countries’ Economy and Social activities. Many countries have adopted the use of online class to ensure the continuous learning of students during the Lockdown in which Nigeria was not left out of this innovative practice. Many online learning platform were used during this time like Zoom, YouTube, WhatsApp, and Edmodo among others. This study aims to study how this online learning practice really helped secondary school students in Nigeria during the lockdown and after, the level of their participation and involvement in E-Learning, how it made them to have access to the digital world and their view about the implementation of E-Learning. A survey of 200 Secondary school students from some Federal unity schools in Nigeria were randomly selected to obtain the primary data with the use of Google Form, some were shared through WhatsApp, while some were filled within the school after resumption. Descriptive analysis was adopted to analysis the data. The findings show that many students took part in the E-Learning during the lockdown and this exercise made them to judiciously make use of their time and the online classes really helped them as they were able to easily understand what they were being taught in class after resumption because they have had ideas on the topics as they have been taught in their online classes, though some students did not participate due to their involvement in Home lesson, lack of digital devices to access the internet or lack of data subscription. The findings indicate students did not waste their lockdown period but really got engaged academically and have wide exposure to the digital world and they are ready to participate if E-Learning is to be incorporated as Holiday lesson or anything.

Keywords: E-learning, Covid-19, Digital device, Federal Unity Colleges, Students’ performance, impact on Students.

6: Study and Analysis of Pb Acid and Li Ion Battery for Transport, Safa Tempo in Kathmandu Valley


The objective of this work is to compare the income generation and discharging nature of lithium ion batteries and lead acid batteries which is powered safa tempo by lithium ion battery of 1set Sinopoly LiFePO4, 76.8 voltage, 300Ah (Safa Tempo No. 3582) and Trojan T125, lead acid batteries of a set of 72V, 240Ah (Safa Tempo No.3578) for a loop of 9km loop (RNAC-MaharajGunj-RNAC) in Kathmandu Valley. In our research work, we consider 1set lithium ion batteries and 2 set of lead acid batteries, fresh batteries. On comparison of income for same loop on single charge of 1set lithium and 2set lead acid the income generated by lead acid is Rs.541NPR per day is greater than lead acid batteries, moreover the number of loops covered by lithium ion is greater than lead acid batteries i.e. lithium ion cover 1 more loops than lead acid. The discharging nature of lead acid with loops is decrease continuously while for lithium ion is constant for some initial loops and decrease constantly with loops while the nature of state of charge is same with loops. Also the price of lead acid batteries is 33% of lithium ion batteries.

Keywords: Lithium ion Battery, Lead Acid Battery, Charging and Discharging, Income generation, Distance Traveled, Loop etc.

7: Make the Educational Decisions Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process AHP in the Light of the Corona Pandemic


The Analytical Hierarchy Process for Decision-Making is one of the oldest and most well-known methods of decision- making of a complex nature, similar to the current global circumstances, with the widespread spread of the Covid-19 virus and the failure of the world to control its spread and its impact, which has impacted almost all sectors of the world, including the education sector. This paper came to Identify educational alternatives and to identify criteria that could affect them in the light of this virus. The process of hierarchical review was used to make a major contribution to decision-making by determining the priority of these educational alternatives. A set of personal interviews was conducted with a group of decision-makers, selected educational experts and influencers in the field of education, after analyzing the data collected from those interviews using the NVIVI software tool, then later that, a data collection tool was designed to determine the weights of alternatives and criteria that are key inputs to the AHP. The AHP used to identify the ranks of those alternatives in order to arrange it, according to the priority, that contribute to making the decision better and easier.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process AHP, Educational Decisions

8: Internet of things in knowledge management in e-government


Knowledge has become the most important resource to distinguish today's organizations, including the e-government, which has realized the importance of adopting the concept of knowledge management to activate the knowledge it possesses, through the processes associated with the production, organization, and sharing of this knowledge, in a way that contributes to improving service activities in these institutions. With the emergence of advanced applications of the concept of the Internet of Things, in addition to the development of information and communication technologies, it can be used in knowledge management because the Internet of things technologies can link physical entities and support interaction with the human element. From this standpoint, this study seeks to highlight the role of Internet of Things applications in supporting knowledge management activities in e-government and thus improving its services. To achieve this goal, this study adopts the descriptive approach, through the investigation and analysis of the intellectual output published in the countries, intending to extrapolate the areas of the relationship between the Internet of Things and knowledge management activities in e-government. The results of the study indicated that the e-government has benefited from the Internet of things in tracking all the physical and intangible entities present in these institutions and determining their locations in the event of their loss or displacement from their specific places, as it has become able to monitor the numbers of visitors and determine the peak hours and the most used sources and thus these institutions were able By providing fast, interactive services that respond to the aspirations of the beneficiaries. This study recommends that various information institutions take the initiative to take advantage of the Internet of Things applications to meet the renewable and changing needs of their beneficiaries.

Keywords: Internet of things, knowledge management, e-government

9: Study on the effect of fused deposition modelling (FDM) process parameters on tensile strength and their optimal selection


Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is a transformative method to industrial fabrication that enables the creation of lighter, stronger parts and systems. Additive manufacturing uses data computer-aided-design (CAD) software or 3D object scanners to direct hardware to deposit material, layer upon layer, in precise geometric shapes. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the mainly used AM techniques for fabricating prototypes and functional parts in common engineering plastics. At various process parameters, mechanical properties of printed parts are significantly changed. Therefore, it is important to examine the influence of printing parameters on quality of printing part. This article provides an experimental investigation for the quality analysis of process parameters on printed parts using fused deposition modelling (FDM) in terms of tensile strength. The experiment were carried out using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array technique by varying process parameters such Infill density, Infill pattern and Layer thickness using Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) print material. Taguchi method are applied for the Multi-objective optimization of characteristics of Printing parts. ANOVA, S/N ratio, and 3D surface plot were used for analysis of experimental result and study the effect of process parameters. Results of Taguchi optimization indicates that the optimal FDM parameters for Tensile strength (UTS) are the layer height at 0.19mm, the Infill rate at 45 %, Build speed at 180 mm/min and the build temperature at 240 ºC which gives maximum UTS =39.094 MPa at maximum value of S/N ratio = 31.8422.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing , Fused deposition modeling; Tensile strength; ANOVA; Taguchi method.